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Fig. 3 | Visualization in Engineering

Fig. 3

From: Visual monitoring of civil infrastructure systems via camera-equipped Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a review of related works

Fig. 3

Web-based visualization and navigation of the state of work-in-progress on construction sites using UAV-collected images, 4D point clouds, and 4D BIM: a image-based 3D point cloud models; b a nested octree structure for mapping and interactions with point cloud data; c the location and orientation of images taken via the UAV are mapped in 3D using pyramids as camera frusta; d texture mapping onto the frontal part of the camera frusta, allowing the users to interact with both images and point cloud data; e conducting linear, area-based, volumetric, and angular measurements; f color-coding changes on the construction site via point cloud data; g 4D BIM superimposed on the point cloud data wherein a location at risk (i.e. a lower reliability in achieving smooth flow of operations w.r.t. the 2-week look ahead schedule) is highlighted in yellow; and h 4D BIM is superimposed on the point cloud model and performance deviations are color-coded. All images are from the ongoing Flying Superintendents project at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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