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Table 5 Rankings of perceived constraints for BIM use and differences between users and non-users

From: Barriers and facilitators for BIM use among Swedish medium-sized contractors - “We wait until someone tells us to use it”

  User Non-user   
Statement (1 totally disagree, 5 totally agree) Rank Mean Rank Mean p-value
High investments in hard- and software 1 3.76 10 3.18 0.15  
Our partners do not use BIM 2 3.39 3 3.92 0.17  
No demands from the clients 3 3.11 1 4.62 0.00 ***
High demands for technical competence 4 2.89 7 3.33 0.29  
Problem with the user-friendliness 4 2.89 6 3.38 0.34  
Difficult to integrate with other systems 6 2.75 11 3.14 0.33  
No internal demand in the company 7 2.67 1 4.62 0.00 ***
Partners do not always give access to the 3-D model 8 2.65 4 3.78 0.02 **
Does not give any clear competitive advantages 9 2.59 5 3.54 0.07  
Takes a long time to learn 10 2.56 9 3.25 0.05 **
BIM-models are too complex 11 2.44 12 2.75 0.57  
Expensive operating and maintenance costs 12 2.39 7 3.33 0.04 **
Major internal resistance in the company 12 2.39 15 2.15 0.59  
The information in the model is often wrong 14 2.38 13 2.40 0.94  
Difficult to know if BIM will persist in the future (a fashion) 15 1.59 14 2.33 0.09  
  1. *** = significant at the 0.01 level ** = significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)