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Table 1 Comparative table of the three design paradigms (Bot and Vitali 2011)

From: Adapting LOD definition to meet BIM uses requirements and data modeling for linear infrastructures projects: using system and requirement engineering

  Design paradigm
Craftsmanship Experimental design Abstracted conception
Stakeholder craftsman experimenter modeler
Object Develop an adjusted artefact. Designing is creating on site. Develop an industrial artefact. Designing is experimenting off-site. Develop a generic artefact. Designing is modeling.
Tool Mnemonic means (archetype), possible drawings exposing the solution in principle to the sponsor. Means of physical tests, realistic models, possibly technical schema relating to a single domain (kinematics, hydraulics, electricity, etc.). Abstract models that can be used by several trades and in different fields, possibly encoded in software.
Community The Master, his team of assistants or apprentices, the sponsor. Experimental designers. Multidisciplinary teams of designers involved in a common project.
Rules for community coherence Sharing of the same archetype and verbal interactions, on site, between actors involved. Sharing of the same design site: the design office, the service of the methods. Transactions with a distant manufacturer, going through detailed plans (counter logic). Coproduction, sharing and circulation of abstract models between teams in the presence or at a distance.
Work division The Master directs the activity of the team, ensures the finishing of the final artefact. His assistants or apprentices realize the details. Taylor’s Division of Labor on the basis of disciplines (mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, etc.) or trades (product designer, Methodist, test manager, etc.). Work divided from codified processes.
Process Design by producing the final artefact as soon as possible. This artefact consists of a variation of an archetype. Design by producing as soon as possible a realistic model of the final artefact. The process is exploratory and empirical. Designing by developing as soon as possible the models of the abstract artefact from which the concrete artefacts (the solutions) will be generated. The process is supported by prescriptive models that are also generic.
Result A final adjusted artefact. Useful plans for mass production of the final artifact. Generic models from which to initiate the design of many concrete solutions or processes.